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Marsman D, D. W. Belsky 路 D. Gregori 路 M. A. Johnson 路 T. Low Dog 路 S. Meydani 路 S. Pigat 路 R. Sadana 路 A. Shao 路 J. C. Griffiths
European Journal of Nutrition
01/06/2018

Healthy ageing: the natural consequences of good nutrition鈥攁 conference report

Many countries are witnessing a marked increase in longevity and with this increased lifespan and the desire for healthy ageing, many, however, suffer from the opposite including mental and physical deterioration, lost productivity and quality of life, and increased medical costs. While adequate nutrition is fundamental for good health, it remains unclear what impact various dietary interventions may have on prolonging good quality of life. Studies which span age, geography and income all suggest that access to quality foods, host immunity and response to inflammation/infections, impaired senses (i.e., sight, taste, smell) or mobility are all factors which can limit intake or increase the body’s need for specific micronutrients. New clinical studies of healthy ageing are needed and quantitative biomarkers are an essential component, particularly tools which can measure improvements in physiological integrity throughout life, thought to be a primary contributor to a long and productive life (a healthy “lifespan”). A framework for progress has recently been proposed in a WHO report which takes a broad, person-centered focus on healthy ageing, emphasizing the need to better understand an individual’s intrinsic capacity, their functional abilities at various life stages, and the impact by mental, and physical health, and the environments they inhabit.

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Assessing vitamin D safety following fortification and supplementation intake scenarios using the EFSA Comprehensive Database: the ODIN approach

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Pigat, S., Connolly, A., Cushen, M., Cullen, M. & O鈥橫ahony, C.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
19/02/2018

A probabilistic intake model to estimate the impact of reformulation by the food industry among Irish consumers. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 0, 1鈥8 (2018).

This project quantified the impact that voluntary reformulation efforts of the food industry had on the Irish population鈥檚 nutrient intake. Nutrient composition data on reformulated products were collected from 14 major food companies for two years, 2005 and 2012. Probabilistic intake assessments were performed using the Irish national food consumption surveys as dietary intake data. The nutrient data were weighted by market shares replacing existing food composition data for these products. The reformulation efforts assessed, significantly reduced mean energy intakes by up to 12鈥塳cal/d (adults), 15鈥塳cal/d (teens), 19鈥塳cal/d (children) and 9鈥塳cal/d (pre-schoolers). Mean daily fat intakes were reduced by up to 1.3鈥塯/d, 1.3鈥塯/d, 0.9鈥塯/d and 0.6鈥塯/d, saturated fat intakes by up to 1.7鈥塯/d, 2.3鈥塯/d, 1.8鈥塯/d and 1鈥塯/d, sugar intakes by up to 1鈥塯/d, 2鈥塯/d, 3.5鈥塯/d and 1鈥塯/d and sodium intakes by up to 0.6鈥塯/d, 0.5鈥塯/d, 0.2鈥塯/d, 0.3鈥塯/d for adults, teenagers, children and pre-school children, respectively. This model enables to assess the impact of industry reformulation amongst Irish consumers鈥 nutrient intakes, using consumption, food composition and market share data.

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Design and baseline characteristics of the Food4Me study: a web-based randomised controlled trial of personalised nutrition in seven European countries, Genes and Nutrition

Improving lifestyle behaviours has considerable potential for reducing the global burden of non-communicable diseases, promoting better health across the life-course and increasing well-being. However, realising this potential will require the development, testing and implementation of much more effective behaviour change interventions than are used conventionally. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a multi-centre, web-based, proof-of-principle study of personalised nutrition (PN) to determine whether providing more personalised dietary advice leads to greater improvements in eating patterns and health outcomes compared to conventional population-based advice. A total of 5,562 volunteers were screened across seven European countries; the first 1,607 participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited into the trial. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following intervention groups for a 6-month period: Level 0鈥攃ontrol group鈥攔eceiving conventional, non-PN advice; Level 1鈥攔eceiving PN advice based on dietary intake data alone; Level 2鈥攔eceiving PN advice based on dietary intake and phenotypic data; and Level 3鈥攔eceiving PN advice based on dietary intake, phenotypic and genotypic data. A total of 1,607 participants had a mean age of 39.8聽years (ranging from 18 to 79聽years). Of these participants, 60.9聽% were women and 96.7聽% were from white-European background. The mean BMI for all randomised participants was 25.5聽kg聽m鈭2, and 44.8聽% of the participants had a BMI聽鈮ヂ25.0聽kg聽m鈭2. Food4Me is the first large multi-centre RCT of web-based PN. The main outcomes from the Food4Me study will be submitted for publication during 2015.

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Vin K, Connolly A, McCaffrey T, McKevitt A, O’Mahony C, Prieto M, Tennant D, Hearty A, Volatier JL.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2013;30(12):2050-80. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2013.851417. Epub 2013 Dec 4.
04/12/2013

Estimation of the dietary intake of 13 priority additives in France, Italy, the UK and Ireland as part of the FACET project鈥.

The aim of this study was to assess the dietary exposure of 13 priority additives in four European countries (France, Italy, the UK and Ireland) using the Flavourings, Additives and Contact Materials Exposure Task (FACET) software. The studied additives were benzoates (E210-213), nitrites (E249-250) and sulphites (E220-228), butylated hydroxytoluene (E321), polysorbates (E432-436), sucroses esters and sucroglycerides (E473-474), polyglycerol esters of fatty acids (E475), stearoyl-lactylates (E481-482), sorbitan esters (E493-494 and E491-495), phosphates (E338-343/E450-452), aspartame (E951) and acesulfame (E950). A conservative approach (based on individual consumption data combined with maximum permitted levels (Tier 2)) was compared with more refined estimates (using a fitted distribution of concentrations based on data provided by the food industry (Tier 3)). These calculations demonstrated that the estimated intake is below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nine of the studied additives. However, there was a potential theoretical exceedance of the ADI observed for four additives at Tier 3 for high consumers (97.5th percentile) among children: E220-228 in the UK and Ireland, E432-436 and E481-482 in Ireland, Italy and the UK, and E493-494 in all countries. The mean intake of E493-494 could potentially exceed the ADI for one age group of children (aged 1-4 years) in the UK. For adults, high consumers only in all countries had a potential intake higher than the ADI for E493-494 at Tier 3 (an additive mainly found in bakery wares). All other additives examined had an intake below the ADI. Further refined exposure assessments may be warranted to provide a more in-depth investigation for those additives that exceeded the ADIs in this paper. This refinement may be undertaken by the introduction of additive occurrence data, which take into account the actual presence of these additives in the different food groups.

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O’Mahony Cian, Vilone Giulia
EFSA Supporting Publications – Volume10, Issue4 April 2013 415E
19/04/2013

Compiled European Food Consumption Database

Food consumption data is a key element of EFSA’s risk assessment activities, forming the basis of dietary exposure assessment at the European level. In 2011, EFSA released the Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database, gathering detailed consumption data from 34 national food consumption surveys representing 66,492 individuals from 22 EU Member States. Due to different survey methodologies used, national survey data cannot be combined to generate average European estimates of dietary exposure. Although the EU menu project, which aims to collect harmonised food consumption data at EU level, will address this limitation of the Comprehensive database, data from this project will not be available until 2018. The present methodological study was executed to assess how the compatibility or existing consumption data as well as the representativeness of food dietary exposure and risk estimates at the European level could be improved through the development of a “Compiled European Food Consumption Database To create Such a dat abase, the usual intake distributions of 589 food items representing the total diet were estimated for 36 clusters, each one composed of subjects belonging to the same age class (children, adolescents or adults). gender and having a similar diet. An adapted form of the NCI (National Cancer Institute) method was used for this, with a number of important modifications. Season, body weight and whether or not the food was consumed at the weekend were used to predict the probability of consumption. Additionally, the gamma distribution was found to be more suitable for modelling the distribution of food amounts n the different food groups instead f the normal distribution. These distributions were combined with food correlation matrices according to the Iman and Conover method in order to simulate 28 days of consumption for 40,000 simulated individuals. The simulated data were validated by comparing the consumption statistics (e.g. mean, median and certain percentiles) of the simulated individuals to the same statistics estimated from the observed individuals of the Comprehensive Database. The same comparison was done at food group level for each cluster. The opportunities and limitations of using the simulated database for exposure assessments are described.

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Forster H, Walsh MC, O’Donovan CB, Woolhead C, McGirr C, Daly E, O’Riordan R, Celis-Morales C, Fallaize R, Macready AL, Marsaux CFM, Navas-Carretero S, San-Cristobal R, Kolossa S, Hartwig K, Mavrogianni C, Tsirigoti L, Lambrinou CP, Godlewska M, Surwi艂艂o A, Gjelstad IMF, Drevon CA, Manios Y, Traczyk I, Martinez JA, Saris WHM, Daniel H, Lovegrove JA, Mathers JC, Gibney MJ, Gibney ER, Brennan L
J Med Internet Res 2016;18(6):e150
30/06/2016

A Dietary Feedback System for the Delivery of Consistent Personalized Dietary Advice in the Web-Based Multicenter Food4Me Study

Background:

Despite numerous healthy eating campaigns, the prevalence of diets high in saturated fatty acids, sugar, and salt and low in fiber, fruit, and vegetables remains high. With more people than ever accessing the Internet, Web-based dietary assessment instruments have the potential to promote healthier dietary behaviors via personalized dietary advice.

Objective:

The objectives of this study were to develop a dietary feedback system for the delivery of consistent personalized dietary advice in a multicenter study and to examine the impact of automating the advice system.

Methods:

The development of the dietary feedback system included 4 components: (1) designing a system for categorizing nutritional intakes; (2) creating a method for prioritizing 3 nutrient-related goals for subsequent targeted dietary advice; (3) constructing decision tree algorithms linking data on nutritional intake to feedback messages; and (4) developing personal feedback reports. The system was used manually by researchers to provide personalized nutrition advice based on dietary assessment to 369 participants during the Food4Me randomized controlled trial, with an automated version developed on completion of the study.

Results:

Saturated fatty acid, salt, and dietary fiber were most frequently selected as nutrient-related goals across the 7 centers. Average agreement between the manual and automated systems, in selecting 3 nutrient-related goals for personalized dietary advice across the centers, was highest for nutrient-related goals 1 and 2 and lower for goal 3, averaging at 92%, 87%, and 63%, respectively. Complete agreement between the 2 systems for feedback advice message selection averaged at 87% across the centers.

Conclusions:

The dietary feedback system was used to deliver personalized dietary advice within a multi-country study. Overall, there was good agreement between the manual and automated feedback systems, giving promise to the use of automated systems for personalizing dietary advice.

Trial Registration:

Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01530139; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01530139 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ht5Dgj8I)

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Manios Y. et al on behalf of the Food4Me Study
European Journal of Nutrition, June 2018, Volume 57, Issue 4, pp 1357鈥1368
13/03/2017

Associations of vitamin D status with dietary intakes and physical activity levels among adults from seven European countries: the Food4Me study

Purpose

To report the vitamin D status in adults from seven European countries and to identify behavioural correlates.

Methods

In total, 1075 eligible adult men and women from Ireland, Netherlands, Spain, Greece, UK, Poland and Germany, were included in the study.

Results

Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, defined as 25-hydroxy vitamin D3聽(25-OHD3) concentration of <30 and 30鈥49.9聽nmol/L, respectively, were observed in 3.3 and 30.6% of the participants. The highest prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was found in the UK and the lowest in the Netherlands (8.2 vs. 1.1%,聽P鈥<鈥0.05). In addition, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was higher in females compared with males (36.6 vs. 22.6%,聽P鈥<鈥0.001), in winter compared with summer months (39.3 vs. 25.0%,聽P鈥<鈥0.05) and in younger compared with older participants (36.0 vs. 24.4%,聽P鈥<鈥0.05). Positive dose鈥搑esponse associations were also observed between 25-OHD3聽concentrations and dietary vitamin D intake from foods and supplements, as well as with physical activity (PA) levels. Vitamin D intakes of 鈮5聽渭g/day from foods and 鈮5聽渭g/day from supplements, as well as engagement in 鈮30聽min/day of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA were associated with higher odds (P鈥<鈥0.05) for maintaining sufficient (鈮50聽nmol/L) 25-OHD3聽concentrations.

Conclusions

The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied considerably among European adults. Dietary intakes of 鈮10聽渭g/day of vitamin D from foods and/or supplements and at least 30聽min/day of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA were the minimum thresholds associated with vitamin D sufficiency.

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San-Cristobal R. et al on behalf of the Food4Me Study
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity December 2017, 14:168
11/12/2017

Capturing health and eating status through a nutritional perception screening questionnaire (NPSQ9) in a randomised internet-based personalised nutrition intervention: the Food4Me study

Background

National guidelines emphasize healthy eating to promote wellbeing and prevention of non-communicable diseases. The perceived healthiness of food is determined by many factors affecting food intake. A positive perception of healthy eating has been shown to be associated with greater diet quality. Internet-based methodologies allow contact with large populations. Our present study aims to design and evaluate a short nutritional perception questionnaire, to be used as a screening tool for assessing nutritional status, and to predict an optimal level of personalisation in nutritional advice delivered via the Internet.

Methods

Data from all participants who were screened and then enrolled into the Food4Me proof-of-principle study (n鈥=鈥2369) were used to determine the optimal items for inclusion in a novel screening tool, the Nutritional Perception Screening Questionnaire-9 (NPSQ9). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on anthropometric and biochemical data and on dietary indices acquired from participants who had completed the Food4Me dietary intervention (n鈥=鈥1153). Baseline and intervention data were analysed using linear regression and linear mixed regression, respectively.

Results

A final model with 9 NPSQ items was validated against the dietary intervention data. NPSQ9 scores were inversely associated with BMI (鈥=鈥夆垝0.181,聽p鈥<鈥0.001) and waist circumference (鈥=鈥夆垝0.155,聽p鈥<鈥0.001), and positively associated with total carotenoids (鈥=鈥0.198,聽p鈥<鈥0.001), omega-3 fatty acid index (鈥=鈥0.155,聽p鈥<鈥0.001), Healthy Eating Index (HEI) (鈥=鈥0.299,聽p鈥<鈥0.001) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) (鈥=鈥0. 279,聽p鈥<鈥0.001). Findings from the longitudinal intervention study showed a greater reduction in BMI and improved dietary indices among participants with lower NPSQ9 scores.

Conclusions

Healthy eating perceptions and dietary habits captured by the NPSQ9 score, based on nine questionnaire items, were associated with reduced body weight and improved diet quality. Likewise, participants with a lower score achieved greater health improvements than those with higher scores, in response to personalised advice, suggesting that NPSQ9 may be used for early evaluation of nutritional status and to tailor nutritional advice.

Trial registration

NCT01530139.

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Application of Behavior Change Techniques in a Personalized Nutrition Electronic Health Intervention Study: Protocol for the Web-Based Food4Me Randomized Controlled Trial

Background:

To determine the efficacy of behavior change techniques applied in dietary and physical activity intervention studies, it is first necessary to record and describe techniques that have been used during such interventions. Published frameworks used in dietary and smoking cessation interventions undergo continuous development, and most are not adapted for Web-based delivery. The Food4Me study (N=1607) provided the opportunity to use existing frameworks to describe standardized Web-based techniques employed in a large-scale, internet-based intervention to change dietary behavior and physical activity.

Objective:

The aims of this study were (1) to describe techniques embedded in the Food4Me study design and explain the selection rationale and (2) to demonstrate the use of behavior change technique taxonomies, develop standard operating procedures for training, and identify strengths and limitations of the Food4Me framework that will inform its use in future studies.

Methods:

The 6-month randomized controlled trial took place simultaneously in seven European countries, with participants receiving one of four levels of personalized advice (generalized, intake-based, intake+phenotype鈥揵ased, and intake+phenotype+gene鈥揵ased). A three-phase approach was taken: (1) existing taxonomies were reviewed and techniques were identified a priori for possible inclusion in the Food4Me study, (2) a standard operating procedure was developed to maintain consistency in the use of methods and techniques across research centers, and (3) the Food4Me behavior change technique framework was reviewed and updated post intervention. An analysis of excluded techniques was also conducted.

Results:

Of 46 techniques identified a priori as being applicable to Food4Me, 17 were embedded in the intervention design; 11 were from a dietary taxonomy, and 6 from a smoking cessation taxonomy. In addition, the four-category smoking cessation framework structure was adopted for clarity of communication. Smoking cessation texts were adapted for dietary use where necessary. A posteriori, a further 9 techniques were included. Examination of excluded items highlighted the distinction between techniques considered appropriate for face-to-face versus internet-based delivery.

Conclusions:

The use of existing taxonomies facilitated the description and standardization of techniques used in Food4Me. We recommend that for complex studies of this nature, technique analysis should be conducted a priori to develop standardized procedures and training and reviewed a posteriori to audit the techniques actually adopted. The present framework description makes a valuable contribution to future systematic reviews and meta-analyses that explore technique efficacy and underlying psychological constructs. This was a novel application of the behavior change taxonomies and was the first internet-based personalized nutrition intervention to use such a framework remotely.

Trial Registration:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530139; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01530139 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6y8XYUft1)

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Marsaux C. FM et al on behalf of the Food4Me Study
JMIR Publications 05.02.16 in Vol 18, No 2 (2016): February
05/02/2016

Changes in Physical Activity Following a Genetic-Based Internet-Delivered Personalized Intervention: Randomized Controlled Trial (Food4Me)

Background:

There is evidence that physical activity (PA) can attenuate the influence of the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) genotype on the risk to develop obesity. However, whether providing personalized information on聽FTO聽genotype leads to changes in PA is unknown.

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to determine if disclosing聽FTO聽risk had an impact on change in PA following a 6-month intervention.

Methods:

The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)聽rs9939609聽in the FTO gene was genotyped in 1279 participants of the Food4Me study, a four-arm, Web-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 7 European countries on the effects of personalized advice on nutrition and PA. PA was measured objectively using a TracmorD accelerometer and was self-reported using the Baecke questionnaire at baseline and 6 months. Differences in baseline PA variables between risk (AA and AT genotypes) and nonrisk (TT genotype) carriers were tested using multiple linear regression. Impact of聽FTO聽risk disclosure on PA change at 6 months was assessed among participants with inadequate PA, by including an interaction term in the model: disclosure (yes/no) 脳聽FTO聽risk (yes/no).

Results:

At baseline, data on PA were available for 874 and 405 participants with the risk and nonrisk聽FTO聽genotypes, respectively. There were no significant differences in objectively measured or self-reported baseline PA between risk and nonrisk carriers. A total of 807 (72.05%) of the participants out of 1120 in the personalized groups were encouraged to increase PA at baseline. Knowledge of聽FTO聽risk had no impact on PA in either risk or nonrisk carriers after the 6-month intervention. Attrition was higher in nonrisk participants for whom genotype was disclosed (P=.01) compared with their at-risk counterparts.

Conclusions:

No association between baseline PA and聽FTO聽risk genotype was observed. There was no added benefit of disclosing聽FTO聽risk on changes in PA in this personalized intervention. Further RCT studies are warranted to confirm whether disclosure of nonrisk genetic test results has adverse effects on engagement in behavior change.

Trial Registration:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530139; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01530139 (Archived by WebCite at: http://www.webcitation.org/6XII1QwHz)

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How reliable is internet-based self-reported identity, socio-demographic and obesity measures in European adults?

In e-health intervention studies, there are concerns about the reliability of internet-based, self-reported (SR) data and about the potential for identity fraud. This study introduced and tested a novel procedure for assessing the validity of internet-based, SR identity and validated anthropometric and demographic data via measurements performed face-to-face in a validation study (VS). Participants (n聽=聽140) from seven European countries, participating in the Food4Me intervention study which aimed to test the efficacy of personalised nutrition approaches delivered via the internet, were invited to take part in the VS. Participants visited a research centre in each country within 2聽weeks of providing SR data via the internet. Participants received detailed instructions on how to perform each measurement. Individual鈥檚 identity was checked visually and by repeated collection and analysis of buccal cell DNA for 33 genetic variants. Validation of identity using genomic information showed perfect concordance between SR and VS. Similar results were found for demographic data (age and sex verification). We observed strong intra-class correlation coefficients between SR and VS for anthropometric data (height 0.990, weight 0.994 and BMI 0.983). However, internet-based SR weight was under-reported (聽鈭0.70聽kg [鈭3.6 to 2.1],聽p聽<聽0.0001) and, therefore, BMI was lower for SR data (聽鈭0.29聽kg聽m鈭2聽[鈭1.5 to 1.0],聽p聽<聽0.0001). BMI classification was correct in 93聽% of cases. We demonstrate the utility of genotype information for detection of possible identity fraud in e-health studies and confirm the reliability of internet-based, SR anthropometric and demographic data collected in the Food4Me study.

Trial registration:

NCT01530139

springer Genes Nutrition self-reported identity socio-demographic and obesity measures

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Fallaize R. et al on behalf of the Food4Me Study
Nutrients, Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health, 6 January 2018
06/01/2018

Association between Diet-Quality Scores, Adiposity, Total Cholesterol and Markers of Nutritional Status in European Adults: Findings from the Food4Me Study

Diet-quality scores (DQS), which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI; Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI; MedDietScore, MDS; PREDIMED Mediterranean Diet Score, P-MDS; Dutch Healthy Diet-Index, DHDI) and markers of metabolic health (anthropometry, objective physical activity levels (PAL), and dried blood spot total cholesterol (TC), total carotenoids, and omega-3 index) in the Food4Me cohort, using regression analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants (n聽= 1480) were adults recruited from seven European Union (EU) countries. Overall, women had higher HEI and AHEI than men (p聽< 0.05), and scores varied significantly between countries. For all DQS, higher scores were associated with lower body mass index, lower waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference, and higher total carotenoids and omega-3-index (p聽trends < 0.05). Higher HEI, AHEI, DHDI, and P-MDS scores were associated with increased daily PAL, moderate and vigorous activity, and reduced sedentary behaviour (p聽trend < 0.05). We observed no association between DQS and TC. To conclude, higher DQS, which reflect better dietary patterns, were associated with markers of better nutritional status and metabolic health.

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Stewart-Knox B.J. et al on behalf of the Food4Me Study
Elsevier, Food Policy, Volume 63, August 2016, Pages 134-144
02/08/2016

Making personalised nutrition the easy choice: Creating policies to break down the barriers and reap the benefits

Personalised diets based on people鈥檚 existing food choices, and/or phenotypic, and/or genetic information hold potential to improve public dietary-related health. The aim of this analysis, therefore, has been to examine the degree to which factors which determine uptake of personalised nutrition vary between EU countries to better target policies to encourage uptake, and optimise the health benefits of personalised nutrition technology. A questionnaire developed from previous qualitative research was used to survey nationally representative samples from 9 EU countries (N聽=聽9381). Perceived barriers to the uptake of personalised nutrition comprised three factors (data protection; the eating context; and, societal acceptance). Trust in sources of information comprised four factors (commerce and media; practitioners; government; family and, friends). Benefits comprised a single factor. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed to compare differences in responses between the United Kingdom; Ireland; Portugal; Poland; Norway; the Netherlands; Germany; and, Spain. The results indicated that respondents in Greece, Poland, Ireland, Portugal and Spain, rated the benefits of personalised nutrition highest, suggesting a particular readiness in these countries to adopt personalised nutrition interventions. Greek participants were more likely to perceive the social context of eating as a barrier to adoption of personalised nutrition, implying a need for support in negotiating social situations while on a prescribed diet. Those in Spain, Germany, Portugal and Poland scored highest on perceived barriers related to data protection. Government was more trusted than commerce to deliver and provide information on personalised nutrition overall. This was particularly the case in Ireland, Portugal and Greece, indicating an imperative to build trust, particularly in the ability of commercial service providers to deliver personalised dietary regimes effectively in these countries. These findings, obtained from a nationally representative sample of EU citizens, imply that a parallel, integrated, public-private delivery system would capture the needs of most potential consumers.

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Micronutrient exposure modelling: To build a refined safety assessment for micronutrients

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Pigat Sandrine, Rosalyn O’Connor
The FASEB Journal 29 (1_supplement), 905.3
01/04/2015

Probabilistic Bioactive Food Compound Intakes in the European BACCHUS Project

Objective

The EU funded BACCHUS project aims to develop tools and resources to study relationships between bioactive food compound intakes and cardiovascular health in humans. To handle variation and uncertainty of bioactive levels in foods a probabilistic model of bioactive intakes was used to estimate distributions of population intakes.

Methods

To assess food bioactive intake distributions in Europe, national food intake surveys were used from the UK, the Netherlands, Norway and Spain. To account for variability and uncertainty of bioactive concentrations within foods, the foods consumed were linked to discrete bioactive concentration distributions using published data on plant based foods as captured in the eBasis database. Daily bioactive population intakes were calculated using a probabilistic intake model in the Creme Nutrition庐 software.

Results

Data shows apple (g/day) and catechin (mg/day) intakes from apples and apple products in the four countries.

Daily intakes (mg/day) Ireland UK Spain Norway
Mean (95%ile) Mean (95%ile) Mean (95%ile) Mean (95%ile)
Apple + Apple Products 33 (135) 32 (129) 42 (183) 78 (300)
Catechin 1卤0.1 (5.8卤0.4) 1卤0.1 (5.2卤0.3) 1.3卤0.06 (8卤0.4) 2.5卤0.14 (14.8卤1.0)
Epicatechin 13卤0.6 (56.5卤3.5) 12.9卤0.65 (54.5卤3.6) 16.7卤0.48 (73.1卤2.4) 29.8卤1.06 (119.6卤6.0)
Epigallocatechin 22.4卤0.9 (92.2卤4.1) 21.7卤1.0 (88.2卤4.9) 28.9卤0.8 (125.2卤6.8) 53.1卤1.8 (204.9卤7.7)
Epicatechin-gallate 0.1卤0.0 (0.3卤0.0) 0.1卤0.0 (0.2卤0.0) 0.1卤0.0 (0.3卤0.0) 0.1卤0.0 (0.6卤0.0)
Conclusion

This study enables the link between bioactive concentration levels in foods and representative population intakes, using probabilistic intake models to better estimate full intake distributions in a population.

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Pigat, S., O’Mahony, C.
The FASEB Journal 29 (1_supplement), 384.8
18/01/2019

A Framework for the Predictive Modelling of Public Health Nutrition Strategies

Research Questions

Within public health nutrition, it is of crucial importance to monitor adequate as well as safe nutritional intakes within a population. Food policy initiatives around dietary intakes include voluntary industry reformulation, portion size reductions, food fortification and consumer behavioral changes. Predictive intake models can be used to assess the likely impact of such policies before their implementation.

Methods

Creme Nutrition, a web based dietary intake software which combines national food consumption and food composition data, includes various models to assess the impact of different strategies, including probabilistic food substitution, portion size modification, and food reformulation. A case study was used to demonstrate the model for sodium reduction using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2008-2010. In this model, sodium content in bread was reduced by 20%, soups were replaced by low sodium soups containing no more than 120mg/100g and pretzel consumption was substituted by one apple at a replacement probability of 70% to model partial consumer adherence probabilistically.

Results

After modelling sodium intakes in the US population, mean total daily sodium intakes in adults decrease from 3671.9卤34.1mg/day to 3512.9卤33mg/day. For the high sodium consumers (97.5%ile) total daily sodium intakes are reduced from 7337.85卤185.6mg/day to 7090.7卤170.8mg/day.

Conclusions

The proposed approach demonstrates the viability of assessing and combining different scenarios to predict the impact of a change on a population’s or a sub-population’s diet via public health initiatives.

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Tozer, S & Cian O’Mahony, Jen Hannah, John O’Brien, Seamus Kelly, Kirstin Kosemund-Meynen, Camilla Alexander-White
Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 131, September 2019, 110549
31/05/2019

Aggregate exposure modelling of vitamin A from cosmetic products, diet and food supplements

Realism is important in estimating consumer exposure to a substance, especially when accounting for exposure from multiple sources. Humans are exposed to聽vitamin A聽from food, dietary supplements and cosmetics products. A probabilistic aggregate exposure model was developed for estimating exposure distributions to vitamin A (as retinol equivalents) in pre-/post-menopausal, and menopausal women in European and US populations. Data from large dietary surveys were used, together with realistic and extreme case scenarios of cosmetics product use (including occurrence data for vitamin A presence in 17 cosmetic products). Results of absorbed exposure estimates were expressed as 渭g/kg鈥痓w/day by incorporating dermal and oral聽bioavailability聽data. The mean and 95th percentile (P95) aggregate exposures were below the EU Tolerable Upper Intake Limit (3000鈥糶/day; 45鈥糶/kg/day internal exposure dose (IED)), providing positive assurances of safety. The major source of vitamin A exposure is the diet, with cosmetics providing only a small fraction of total exposure (2鈥5% at P95). In addition to providing a realistic assessment of total vitamin A exposure, this work provides a case study on how to approach future complex aggregate exposure questions.

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Celis-Morales C, …, E. J. Daly, Victor Akujobi, Rick O鈥橰iordan, et al on behalf of the Food4Me Study
December 2014Genes & Nutrition 10(450):1-13
10/12/2014

Baseline characteristics of the Food4Me Proof of Principle Study: a web-based randomised controlled trial of personalised nutrition in seven European countries

Improving lifestyle behaviours has considerable potential for reducing the global burden of non-communicable diseases, promoting better health across the life-course and increasing well-being. However, realising this potential will require the development, testing and implementation of much more effective behaviour change interventions than are used conventionally. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a multi-centre, web-based, proof-of-principle study of personalised nutrition (PN) to determine whether providing more personalised dietary advice leads to greater improvements in eating patterns and health outcomes compared to conventional population-based advice. A total of 5,562 volunteers were screened across seven European countries; the first 1,607 participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited into the trial. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following intervention groups for a 6-month period: Level 0鈥攃ontrol group鈥攔eceiving conventional, non-PN advice; Level 1鈥攔eceiving PN advice based on dietary intake data alone; Level 2鈥攔eceiving PN advice based on dietary intake and phenotypic data; and Level 3鈥攔eceiving PN advice based on dietary intake, phenotypic and genotypic data. A total of 1,607 participants had a mean age of 39.8聽years (ranging from 18 to 79聽years). Of these participants, 60.9聽% were women and 96.7聽% were from white-European background. The mean BMI for all randomised participants was 25.5聽kg聽m鈭2, and 44.8聽% of the participants had a BMI聽鈮ヂ25.0聽kg聽m鈭2. Food4Me is the first large multi-centre RCT of web-based PN. The main outcomes from the Food4Me study will be submitted for publication during 2015.

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Tozer Sarah, Cian O鈥橫ahony, Jay Nash, Seamus Kelly, E.J. Daly
Toxicology Letters, Volume 229, Supplement, 10 September 2014, Page S128
10/09/2014

Probabilistic aggregate exposure modelling to aluminium from the diet, cosmetics and medicines

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Tozer S, Kosemund K, Kelly S, O鈥橫ahony C.
Toxicology Letters, Volume 238, Issue 2, Supplement, 16 October 2015, Page S368
16/10/2015

Aggregate exposure to vitamin A from cosmetics and the diet

Realism is important in estimating consumer exposure to a substance, especially when accounting for exposure from multiple sources. Humans are exposed to vitamin A from food, dietary supplements and cosmetics products. A probabilistic aggregate exposure model was developed for estimating exposure distributions to vitamin A (as retinol equivalents) in pre-/post-menopausal, and menopausal women in European and US populations. Data from large dietary surveys were used, together with realistic and extreme case scenarios of cosmetics product use (including occurrence data for vitamin A presence in 17 cosmetic products). Results of absorbed exposure estimates were expressed as 渭g/kg bw/day by incorporating dermal and oral bioavailability data. The mean and 95th percentile (P95) aggregate exposures were below the EU Tolerable Upper Intake Limit (3000 渭g/day; 45 渭g/kg/day internal exposure dose (IED)), providing positive assurances of safety. The major source of vitamin A exposure is the diet, with cosmetics providing only a small fraction of total exposure (2-5% at P95). In addition to providing a realistic assessment of total vitamin A exposure, this work provides a case study on how to approach future complex aggregate exposure questions.

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O鈥橲ullivan Aaron J., Sandrine Pigat, Cian O鈥橫ahony, Michael J. Gibney & Aideen I. McKevitt
Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A Volume 35, 2018 – Issue 1
17/11/2017

Predictive modelling of the exposure to Steviol Glycosides in Irish patients aged 1-3 years with Phenylketonuria and Cow鈥檚 milk protein allergy

Children with Phenylketonuria (PKU) and severe cow鈥檚 milk protein allergy (CMPA) consume prescribed, specially formulated, foods for special medical purposes (FSMPs) as well as restricted amounts of normal foods. These patients are exposed to artificial sweeteners from the consumption of a combination of free and prescribed foods. Young patients with PKU and CMPA have a higher risk of exceeding acceptable daily intakes (ADI) for additives than age-matched healthy children. A predictive modelling approach has been adapted successfully to assess the additive exposure of young patients with PKU and CMPA to artificial sweeteners. Steviol glycosides (E960) are at various stages of regulatory approval for the various food categories in the EU but are not as yet permitted for use in products intended for young children. The aim of this study was to predict potential steviol glycoside exposure in young children with PKU and CMPA considering the potential for future provisions for the use of this sweetener. The recent introduction of steviol glycosides means that no exposure data are available for children with CMPA and PKU. Food consumption data were derived from the food consumption survey data of healthy young children in Ireland from the National Preschool and Nutrition Survey (NPNS, 2010鈥11). Specially formulated amino acid-based FSMPs are used to replace whole or milk protein foods and were included in the exposure model to replace restricted foods. The recommendations to ensure adequate protein intake in these patients were used to determine FSMP intake. Exposure assessment results indicated that the maximum permitted level (MPL) for FSMPs would warrant careful consideration to avoid exposures above the ADI. These data can be used to inform recommendations for the medical nutrition industry.

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Horodyska, Justyna; Pigat, Sandrine; Wonik, Jasmin; Bompola, Foteini; Cai, David; Rehm, Colin D; Gonzalez, Tanhia D.
09/06/2021

Impact of sociodemographic factors on the consumption of tubers in Brazil

Background

Although tubers play a significant role in Brazilian agriculture, very little is known about the intake of tubers among the Brazilian population. The objective of this study was to characterize the intake of tubers across Brazil. The types of tubers consumed were quantified, and the impact of geographic and sociodemographic factors was assessed.

Methods

This cross-sectional study is based on dietary intake data of 33,504 subjects obtained from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey. All tuber containing foods were identified, and the contribution of different tubers to overall tuber consumption in Brazil was quantified. Descriptive analyses assessed the impact of macroregion and sociodemographic characteristics on tuber consumption, and differences in intake were assessed using statistical tests. Lastly, the dietary intakes of tuber consumers and non-consumers were compared after adjusting for energy and covariates to determine if there were any major differences in dietary intakes between the two groups.

Results

Fifty-five percent of the Brazilian population consumed tubers, which differed by macroregion. The intake of tubers among consumers also differed between macroregions. Overall, rural areas reported significantly higher mean daily intakes of tubers (122鈥塯/day) among tuber consumers than urban areas (95鈥塯/day). Mandioca and potato were the most commonly consumed tubers (59 and 43% prevalence, respectively, on any of the 2 days), while the highest daily intakes amongst tuber consumers across Brazil were noted for sweet potato (156鈥塯/day) and potato (95鈥塯/day). On a macroregion level, among tuber consumers, mandioca had the highest prevalence of consumption in the North (94%), Northeast (83%), and Central-West (68%), while consumption of potatoes was most prevalent in the Southeast (63%) and South (62%). Compared to women, small but significantly higher tuber intakes were noted for males (108 vs. 85鈥塯/day). There were no significant differences in intakes among income quintiles. After adjusting for energy and other covariates, nutrient intakes between tuber and non-tuber consumers were not meaningfully different, with the exception of sodium (+鈥6.0% comparing non-tuber to tuber consumers), iron (+鈥6.1%), zinc (+鈥5.7%), vitamin C (+鈥8.3%), riboflavin (+鈥9.0%), and folate (+鈥7.9%).

Conclusions

Tuber consumption is influenced by regional and sociodemographic characteristics of the Brazilian population. When looking at energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, diets of tuber consumers have resulted in somewhat lower intakes of some micronutrients, namely riboflavin, folate, vitamin C, iron, sodium, and zinc.

nutrition journal Impact of sociodemographic factors on the consumption of tubers in Brazil

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Forster H, Walsh MC, O’Donovan CB, Woolhead C, McGirr C, Daly E, O’Riordan R, Celis-Morales C, Fallaize R, Macready AL, Marsaux CFM, Navas-Carretero S, San-Cristobal R, Kolossa S, Hartwig K, Mavrogianni C, Tsirigoti L, Lambrinou CP, Godlewska M, Surwi艂艂o A, Gjelstad IMF, Drevon CA, Manios Y, Traczyk I, Martinez JA, Saris WHM, Daniel H, Lovegrove JA, Mathers JC, Gibney MJ, Gibney ER, Brennan L
J Med Internet Res 2016;18(6):e150
30/06/2016

A Dietary Feedback System for the Delivery of Consistent Personalized Dietary Advice in the Web-Based Multicenter Food4Me Study

Background:

Despite numerous healthy eating campaigns, the prevalence of diets high in saturated fatty acids, sugar, and salt and low in fiber, fruit, and vegetables remains high. With more people than ever accessing the Internet, Web-based dietary assessment instruments have the potential to promote healthier dietary behaviors via personalized dietary advice.

Objective:

The objectives of this study were to develop a dietary feedback system for the delivery of consistent personalized dietary advice in a multicenter study and to examine the impact of automating the advice system.

Methods:

The development of the dietary feedback system included 4 components: (1) designing a system for categorizing nutritional intakes; (2) creating a method for prioritizing 3 nutrient-related goals for subsequent targeted dietary advice; (3) constructing decision tree algorithms linking data on nutritional intake to feedback messages; and (4) developing personal feedback reports. The system was used manually by researchers to provide personalized nutrition advice based on dietary assessment to 369 participants during the Food4Me randomized controlled trial, with an automated version developed on completion of the study.

Results:

Saturated fatty acid, salt, and dietary fiber were most frequently selected as nutrient-related goals across the 7 centers. Average agreement between the manual and automated systems, in selecting 3 nutrient-related goals for personalized dietary advice across the centers, was highest for nutrient-related goals 1 and 2 and lower for goal 3, averaging at 92%, 87%, and 63%, respectively. Complete agreement between the 2 systems for feedback advice message selection averaged at 87% across the centers.

Conclusions:

The dietary feedback system was used to deliver personalized dietary advice within a multi-country study. Overall, there was good agreement between the manual and automated feedback systems, giving promise to the use of automated systems for personalizing dietary advice.

Trial Registration:

Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01530139; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01530139 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ht5Dgj8I)

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Diane C. Mitchell, Christopher P. F. Marinangeli, Sandrine Pigat, Foteini Bompola, Jessie Campbell, Yang Pan, Julianne M. Curran, David J. Cai, Susan Y. Jaconis, Jeff Rumney
31/07/2021

Pulse Intake Improves Nutrient Density among US Adult Consumers

The objective was to examine trends in pulse (dry beans, dry peas, chickpeas and lentils) intake over a 10-year period and to compare nutrient intakes of pulse consumers and non-consumers to better understand the impact of pulse consumption on diet quality in the US population. NHANES 2003鈥2014 data for respondents (鈮19 years) with 2 days of intake was used to evaluate trends in pulse intake. Pulse consumers were identified as those NHANES respondents who consumed pulses on one or both days. Differences in energy adjusted nutrient intakes between non-consumers and consumers were assessed. There were no significant trends in pulse intakes for the total population or for pulse consumers over the 10-year period. In 2013鈥2014, approximately 27% of adults consumed pulses with an intake of 70.9 卤 2.5 g/day over 2 days, just slightly <0.5 cup equivalents/day. At all levels of consumption, consumers had higher (p聽< 0.01) energy adjusted intakes of fiber, folate, magnesium. Higher energy adjusted intakes for potassium, zinc, iron and choline and lower intakes of fat were observed for consumers than for non-consumers at intakes 鈮69.4 卤 1.01 g/day. These data suggest that pulse consumption in the US population may result in better diet quality with diets that are more nutrient dense than those without pulses.

Nutrients MDPI eBASIS Bioactive Substances in Food Information Systems

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Food4Me Study – On behalf of
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 104, Issue 3, September 2016, Pages 827鈥836
01/09/2016

The effect of the apolipoprotein E genotype on response to personalized dietary advice intervention: findings from the Food4Me randomized controlled trial

Background:

The apolipoprotein E (APOE) risk allele (蓻4) is associated with higher total cholesterol (TC), amplified response to saturated fatty acid (SFA) reduction, and increased cardiovascular disease. Although knowledge of gene risk may enhance dietary change, it is unclear whether 蓻4 carriers would benefit from gene-based personalized nutrition (PN).

Objectives:

The aims of this study were to聽1) investigate interactions between聽APOE聽genotype and habitual dietary fat intake and modulations of fat intake on metabolic outcomes;聽2) determine whether gene-based PN results in greater dietary change than do standard dietary advice (level 0) and nongene-based PN (levels 1鈥2); and聽3) assess the impact of knowledge of聽APOE聽risk (risk: E4+, nonrisk: E4鈭) on dietary change after gene-based PN (level 3).

Design:

Individuals (n聽= 1466) recruited into the Food4Me pan-European PN dietary intervention study were randomly assigned to 4 treatment arms and genotyped for聽APOE聽(rs429358 and rs7412). Diet and dried blood spot TC and 蠅-3 (n鈥3) index were determined at baseline and after a 6-mo intervention. Data were analyzed with the use of adjusted general linear models.

Results:

Significantly higher TC concentrations were observed in E4+ participants than in E4鈭 (P聽< 0.05). Although there were no significant differences in聽APOE聽response to gene-based PN (E4+ compared with E4鈭), both groups had a greater reduction in SFA (percentage of total energy) intake than at level 0 (mean 卤 SD: E4+, 鈭0.72% 卤 0.35% compared with 鈭1.95% 卤 0.45%,聽P聽= 0.035; E4鈭, 鈭0.31% 卤 0.20% compared with 鈭1.68% 卤 0.35%,聽P聽= 0.029). Gene-based PN was associated with a smaller reduction in SFA intake than in nongene-based PN (level 2) for E4鈭 participants (鈭1.68% 卤 0.35% compared with 鈭2.56% 卤 0.27%,聽P聽= 0.025).

Conclusions:

The聽APOE聽蓻4 allele was associated with higher TC. Although gene-based PN targeted to聽APOE聽was more effective in reducing SFA intake than standard dietary advice, there was no difference between聽APOE聽鈥渞isk鈥 and 鈥渘onrisk鈥 groups. Furthermore, disclosure of聽APOE聽nonrisk may have weakened dietary response to PN. This trial was registered at聽clinicaltrials.gov聽as NCT01530139.

the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition - effect of the apolipoprotein E genotype

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Design, development and validation of software for modelling dietary exposure to food chemicals and nutrients.

The Monte Carlo computational system for stochastic modelling of dietary exposure to food chemicals and nutrients is presented. This system was developed through a European Commission-funded research project. It is accessible as a Web-based application service. The system allows and supports very significant complexity in the data sets used as the model input, but provides a simple, general purpose, linear kernel for model evaluation. Specific features of the system include the ability to enter (arbitrarily) complex mathematical or probabilistic expressions at each and every input data field, automatic bootstrapping on subjects and on subject food intake diaries, and custom kernels to apply brand information such as market share and loyalty to the calculation of food and chemical intake.

Food Additives and Contaminants journal software for modelling dietary exposure to food chemicals and nutrients

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Mathers John C – Acknowledging the Food4Me Study
EFSA Journal, 08 July 2019
08/07/2019

Paving the way to better population health through personalised nutrition

As each individual person differs from the next in multiple ways, it is a beguiling idea that our individual nutritional needs also differ. In support of this idea, findings from nutritional intervention studies provide ample evidence of considerable interindividual variation in response to the same dietary exposure. We have a limited understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this variation but, following sequencing of the human genome, the role of genes in explaining interindividual differences has been centre stage. In addition, evidence of diet鈥揼ene interactions that influence phenotype, including health, emphasises the importance of both nature and nurture. Eating patterns are major determinants of health, so public health advice to reduce the risk of common complex diseases focuses on diet. However, most dietary interventions are relatively ineffective and personalised approaches that tailor the intervention to the individual may be more acceptable and more effective. That idea was tested in the Food4Me study in which adults from seven European countries were randomised to one of four treatment groups in an internet-delivered dietary intervention. Compared with the Control (standardised healthy eating advice), those people randomised to a personalised nutrition intervention had bigger, sustained changes, in eating behaviour after 6聽months. However, including more complex phenotypic and/or genotypic information in developing the personalised nutrition advice had no added benefit. Research in personalised nutrition is broadening its scope to consider effects mediated by the gut microbiome as well as multiple aspects of genotype and phenotype. Such research has the potential to explain interindividual differences in the response to specific dietary factors and may provide a scientific basis for more refined approaches to personalised nutrition. However, if this research is to make a significant contribution to improving public health, it will need to address the psychological, social, economic and cultural factors that influence eating patterns to ensure that advice is converted into action and that improved dietary habits are sustained in perpetuity.

efsa journal better population health through personalised nutrition

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Combining National Food Consumption Survey Data with a Bioactive Database in a Probabilistic Intake Model to Assess Bioactive Intakes in Europe – a Tool Resulting from the European BACCHUS Project

The aim of the European Framework project BACCHUS was to develop tools and resources to study the relationships between intakes of bioactive food compounds and cardiovascular health in humans. This part of the BACCHUS study focussed on assessing population bioactive intakes, the impact of foods and products high in bioactives on the diet and the development of a platform to analyse these intakes.

To calculate bioactive intakes, dietary consumption data from the UK, Ireland, Spain and Norway were used. Plant based bioactive concentrations were obtained from eBasis, a database on bioactive compounds sourced from peer reviewed publications. Composition data was mapped to foods as consumed in the consumption surveys. Each food-compound combination resulted in multiple concentration data points using discrete distributions of concentrations. Daily bioactive intake distributions were calculated using a probabilistic approach. To assess the impact of introducing bioactive products and supplements on the overall diet, three scenarios were applied to the BACCHUS intake model, using the UK National Diet and Nutrition Rolling Survey 2008鈥2012 Adults (NDNS). Firstly the use of KAMUT庐 Khorasan wheat flour in commercially-packaged pasta, matzo bread and crisp toast was simulated in place of the commonly used Durum wheat flour. The nsLTP2 peptide intakes from these products were assessed. Secondly the impact of giving current supplement consumers epicatechin-rich capsules at 70 and 140 mg/capsule and finally the impact of giving a pomegranate ellagitannin extract at two doses (450 mg and 1.8 g per day) to supplement consumers was assessed.

Results on daily intakes were generated for all four populations, 91 plants, covering 242 individual compounds from 7 compound classes. Intakes were comparable to other published studies, serving as a validation of the intake model and data used. From the case studies mean nsLTP2 intakes (mg/day) from pasta, bread and crisp toast for UK adults were 2.76 mg/day for Durum wheat and 5.77 mg/day for KAMUT庐 Khorasan wheat products. From all foods analysed, including capsules, total mean epicatechin intake increased from 135.4 mg/day to 157 mg/day and 179 mg/day respectively. Mean ellagitannin intake increased from 0.85 mg/day to 29 mg/day and 113 mg/day respectively. Baseline results were uploaded into the eBASIS-Creme Global exposure interface, a cloud based tool which was developed during the project. The interface forms a part of the BACCHUS toolkit, an interactive platform with five integrated tools and resources aimed at SMEs, researchers and regulators, including elearning and a best practice guide to making Health Claims.

The combination of detailed food records and the entire range of selected eBasis data points into a probabilistic intake model proved to be a robust method to generate population intakes of bioactives. Data on bioactive intakes may help to inform Health Claims as to whether the intakes of foods or compounds, required for a claimed cardiovascular effect, are realistically achievable within current dietary habits.

the faseb journal National Food Consumption Survey Data with a Bioactive Database

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Plumb Jenny, Sandrine Pigat, Foteini Bompola, Maeve Cushen, Hannah Pinchen, Eric N酶rby, Si芒n Astley, Jacqueline Lyons, Mairead Kiely and Paul Finglas
Nutrients – Volume 9, Issue 4
23/03/2017

eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information Systems) and Bioactive Intakes: Major Updates of the Bioactive Compound Composition and Beneficial Bioeffects Database and the Development of a Probabilistic Model to Assess Intakes in Europe

eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information Systems), a web-based database that contains compositional and biological effects data for bioactive compounds of plant origin, has been updated with new data on fruits and vegetables, wheat and, due to some evidence of potential beneficial effects, extended to include meat bioactives. eBASIS remains one of only a handful of comprehensive and searchable databases, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on the composition of food bioactives and their putative health benefits. The database has a user-friendly, efficient, and flexible interface facilitating use by both the scientific community and food industry. Overall, eBASIS contains data for 267 foods, covering the composition of 794 bioactive compounds, from 1147 quality-evaluated peer-reviewed publications, together with information from 567 publications describing beneficial bioeffect studies carried out in humans. This paper highlights recent updates and expansion of eBASIS and the newly-developed link to a probabilistic intake model, allowing exposure assessment of dietary bioactive compounds to be estimated and modelled in human populations when used in conjunction with national food consumption data. This new tool could assist small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the development of food product health claim dossiers for submission to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

Nutrients MDPI eBASIS Bioactive Substances in Food Information Systems

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Nutrient intakes and iron and vitamin D status differ depending on main milk consumed by UK children aged 12鈥18 months 鈥 secondary analysis from the Diet & Nutrition Survey of Infants & Young Children.

Nutrition in the second year is important as this is a period of rapid growth and development. Milk is a major food for young children and this analysis evaluated the impact of the type of milk consumed on nutrient intakes and nutritional status. Data from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children were used to investigate the intakes of key nutrients, and Fe and vitamin D status, of children aged 12鈥18 months, not breastfed, and consuming >400 g/d fortified milk (n聽139) or >400 g/d of whole cows鈥 milk (n聽404). Blood samples from eligible children for measurement of Hb (n聽113), serum ferritin and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (n聽105) were available for approximately 20 % of children. Unpaired Mann鈥揥hitney tests were used to compare nutrient intakes and status between consumers of fortified and cows鈥 milk. Mean daily total dietary intakes of Fe, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin D were significantly higher in the fortified milk group. Mean daily total dietary intakes of energy, protein, Ca, iodine, Na and saturated fat were significantly higher in the cows鈥 milk group. Hb was not different between groups. The fortified milk group had significantly higher serum ferritin (P聽= 0路049) and plasma 25(OH)D (P聽= 0路014). This analysis demonstrates significantly different nutrient intakes and status between infants consuming >400 g/d fortified milk聽v. those consuming >400 g/d whole cows鈥 milk. These results indicate that fortified milks can play a significant role in improving the quality of young children’s diets in their second year of life.

jns-journal-of-nutritional-science-Diet & Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children

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